Referencing

How to Cite

All accredited IMI courses require participants to use the IMI/Harvard Style of citing and referencing. Referring to other sources of information in the main body of your text is achieved through the use of in-text citations. These provide abbreviated details of the work that you are referring to. They normally take the form of either a direct or indirect quotation and both must contain the following information:

  • Name of author or organisation
  • Year of publication, followed by a comma
  • Page number where possible

Direct quotation
A direct quotation is one in which you copy an author's words directly from the original source and use that exact wording in the main body of your text. In this case, the format mentioned above applies with the inclusion of quotation marks around the copied portion of text.

Example:
Management is a ‘set of processes that can keep a complicated system of people and technology running smoothly’ (Kotter, 1996, p. 25).

Indirect quotation
You do not copy the original source word for word; instead you capture its meaning using your own words. However, you must still cite your source of information. In this case, the format mentioned above applies with the exclusion of quotation marks.

Example:
Eisenstat (1989, p. 10) describes how John believes that change cannot occur through negative feedback. By only providing positive feedback, employees may feel better about themselves but this does not provide personal development.

Note: When using direct or indirect quotations, It is entirely your decision whether to position the in-text citation at the start or end of the sentence, just be consistent throughout and ensure that the use of the citation does not disrupt the logical flow of your writing.